# Some vital civil engineering notes

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In this civil engineering tutorial video, you will be familiar with some important notes for civil engineers.

Standard Conversion Factor: The objective of a conversion factor is to modify the units of a measured quantity retaining its value unchanged. Besides, if the numerator and denominator of a fraction are equivalent to each other, then the fraction is identical to one.

Given below, the details of standard conversion factors:

1 inch = 25.4 mm

1 feet = 0.3048 m

1 yard = 0.9144 m

1 meter = 3.28 ft

1 mm = 0.0394 inch

1 mile = 1.6093 km

1 newton = 0.10 kg

Unit weight of steel: To determine the weight, the following formula is used :-

W= D^2/162.2; D belongs to the diameter of steel bars.

It is obtained from the very basic concept

i.e., weight = density x volume

It is also possible to write it as weight = density x (area x length)

We know, density of steel= 7850 kg/m^3 ,

Length= 1 m &

Aea = pi x d^2/ 4

So, weight = (7850 x (3.14/4) d^2 x 1000) / (10^9)

= d^2 x 0.00616225

Unit of steel in kg per meter

### Also Read: Cost Estimation Construction Worksheets

For 6 mm steel the weight should be 0.222 kg/m

For 8 mm steel the weight should be 0.395 kg/m

For 10 mm steel the weight should be 0.616 kg/m

For 12 mm steel the weight should be 0.888 kg/m

For 16 mm steel the weight should be 1.578 kg/m

For 20 mm steel the weight should be 2.466 kg/m

For 25 mm steel the weight should be 3.853 kg/m

For 32 mm steel the weight should be 6.313 kg/m

For 40 mm steel the weight should be 9.865 kg/m

Concrete Grades & Mix Ratios

For M5 concrete grades, the ratio should have been = 1:4:8

M10 concrete grades, the ratio should have been = 1:3:6

For M15 concrete grades, the ratio should have been = 1:2:4

For M20 concrete grades, the ratio should have been = 1:1.5:3

For M25 concrete grades, the ratio should have been = 1:1:2

Here, M stands for mix and M15 stands for compressive strength of concrete attained after 28 days as 15 N/mm2 (N = newton).

The top of raft foundation should have been = 50 mm

The bottom of raft foundation should have been = 75 mm

foundation side should have been = 75 mm

The clear cover of beam should have been = 25 mm

clear cover of strap beam should have been = 50 mm

Column clear minimum clear cover should have been = 40 mm

Flat slab should have been = 20 mm

Slab should have been = 15 mm

To get more civil engineering notes, watch the following civil engineering video tutorial.

Video Source: Civil Engineers

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