# Definition of Slope, gradient and camber in construction

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In this exclusive civil engineering video tutorial, the renowned civil engineer S.L. Khan briefly explains the terms slopes, grades, gradients and camber.

Slope: The slope is the assessment of the steepness of a line, or a segment of a line that attaches two points. The slope of a line refers to the ratio of the amount that y expands as x increases some amount. Slope explains how steep a line is, or how much y expands as x increases. The slope is constant (equivalent) anywhere on the line.

Based on the construction method, the slope is categorized as follow:

a. Natural Slope

b. Artificial Slope

Based on the extent, the slope is categorized as follow:

a. Infinite Slopes

b. Finite slope

Gradient: A gradient denotes the degree of inclination. It generally indicates ratio of distance from a horizontal plane to change of horizontal way of inclination. On the road, gradient may appear as negative or positive stating fall or rise of the road correspondingly.

Gradient are classified into the following categories:

1. Ruling gradient

2. Limiting gradient

3. Exceptional gradient

4. Minimum gradient

5. Average gradient

6. Floating gradient

Camber: Camber means the convexity or curvature of the road so that water can’t be clogged. The highest point of camber is defined as crown.

Camber can curve upward in the middle or arch slightly.

The following types of cambers are generally found :-

Parabolic camber: It comes in a parabola shape and is mostly found in flexible pavement.

Sloping camber: It is best suited for rigid pavement (concrete pavement). It becomes difficult to provide rigid pavement shape of parabola.

Composite camber: It is suitable when there is possibility of extension of road in near future. It is the amalgamation of parabolic and sloping camber.

To get more details, go through the following exclusive video presentation.

Video Source: SL Khan

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