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Estimating Sheet

Different types of loads functional on building & other structures

Construction Software

The types of loads operating on the building structures are classified as vertical loads, horizontal loads and longitudinal loads. The vertical loads involve dead load, live load and impact load. The horizontal loads contain wind load and earthquake load.

The longitudinal loads i.e. tractive and braking forces are specifically applied for designing the bridges, gantry girders etc..

Types of Loads on Structures: While developing a building, consideration should be given on two vital parts like safety and economy. If the loads are rectified and provided higher then economy is influenced. If economy is chosen and provided loads are smaller, then the safety is ensured.

So, it is necessary to estimate the different types of functional loads perfectly. As per and American Standard Code ASCE 7, least design loads for Buildings and other structures define different types of design loads for buildings and structures.

Types of functional loads on a structure are as follow :

1. Dead loads
2. Imposed loads
3. Wind loads
4. Snow loads
5. Earthquake loads
6. Special loads

1. Dead Loads (DL): It is the first vertical load to be treated as dead load. Dead loads are permanent or stationary loads which are transmitted to structure all though the extent of its life. Dead load originates mainly because of self-weight of structural members, perpetual partition walls, fixed permanent equipments and weight of various materials. It mostly includes the weight of roofs, beams, walls and column etc. which belong to the permanent portions of the building.

The dead loads of each structure are measured with the volume of each section and multiplied with the unit weight. Given below, the unit weights of some of the common materials.

2. Imposed Loads or Live Loads (IL or LL): The second vertical load that is useful for designing a structure, is known as imposed loads or live loads. Live loads are either movable or moving loads devoid of any acceleration or impact. These loads are supposed to be generated with the proposed use or occupancy of the building together with weights of movable partitions or furniture etc..

Different types of loads functional on building & other structures

Live loads fluctuate on a regular basis. The designers can perfectly assume these loads. It is one of the most important loads in the design. The least values of live loads to be anticipated are given in IS 875 (part 2)–1987. It is subject to the proposed use of the building.

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