# Some useful information and formulas in civil engineering field

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In this civil engineering article, you will get some vital information and formulas concerning the weight of steel bars per meter, the weight of engineering materials, standard conversion factors, concrete grades etc.

Given below, the weight of steel bars per meter:

Bar with 6 mm dia, the weight is 0.222 kg

Bar with 8 mm dia, the weight is 0.395 kg

Bar with 10 mm dia, the weight is 0.616 kg

Bar with 12 mm dia, the weight is 0.888 kg

Bar with 16 mm dia, the weight is 1.578 kg

Bar with 20 mm dia, the weight is 2.466 kg

Bar with 25 mm dia, the weight is 3.853 kg

Bar with 32 mm dia, the weight is 6.313 kg

Bar with 40 mm dia, the weight is 9.865 kg

Given below, the details of standard conversion factors:

1 inch = 25.4 mm

1 foot = 0.3048 m

1 yard = 0.9144 m

1 meter = 3.28 ft

1 mm = 0.0394 inch

1 mile = 1.6093 km

1 newton = 0.10 kg

Given below, the unit weight of different types of engineering materials

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Bitumen = 1340 kg/m^{3}

Cement = 1440 kg/m^{3}

Cast Iron = 7650 kg/m^{3}

Steel = 7850 kg/m^{3}

Ice = 913 kg/m^{3}

Petrol = 690 kg/m^{3}

Based on their related compressive strength, concrete grades are demonstrated as M5, M10, M30.

The “M” denotes Mix design of concrete followed by the compressive strength number in N/mm^{2}

For M10 concrete, it means that the concrete comprises of10 N/mm2 characteristic compressive strength at 28 days.

Mix ratio is 1:4:8 For M5 grade of concrete

Mix ratio is 1:3:6 For M10 grade of concrete

Mix ratio is 1:2:4 For M15 grade of concrete

Mix ratio is 1:1.5:3 For M20 grade of concrete

Mix ratio is 1:1:2 For M25 grade of concrete

The weight of the steel bars is determined with the following formula :-

W = (D ^ 2 x L) / 162

D stands for the diameter of the bars.

L stands for the total length of the steel bars for which the weight should be calculated.

As for instance, in case of measuring the weight of 20 mm steel bars, the calculation is done as W = 20 ^ 2/162 = 2,466 kg / meter

A conversion factor stands for a number applied to convert one set of units into another by multiplying or dividing it. While changing, the proper conversion factor to an identical value should be employed. As for instance, to convert inches to feet, the proper conversion value should be 12 inches, that is equivalent to 1 foot.

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