How to measure loads on column
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Before starting column loads calculation, it is urgent to learn about the types of loads on column.
Types of loads on Column: Self weight of the column x Number of floors
Self weight of beams per running meter
Load of walls per running meter
Total Load of slab (Dead load + Live load + Self weight)
The columns are also exposed to bending moments which should be taken into consideration into the final design. To get rid of the manual system for structural design, it is recommended to design a structure with advanced structural design software like ETABS or STAAD Pro.
In professional practice, the computation for structural loading is based on some fundamental assumptions.
For Column: Self weight of Concrete is approx 2400 kg per cubic meter, that is identical to 240 kN. Self weight of Steel is approx 8000 kg per cubic meter. Even a large column is selected with size of 230 mm x 600 mm with 1% steel and 3 meters standard height, the self weight of column is approx 1000 kg per floor, that is identical to 10 kN. So, here self weight of column is taken among 10 to 15 kN per floor.
For Beams: The calculation is same as above. Suppose, each meter of beam contains dimensions of 230 mm x 450 mm without slab thickness. So, the self weight should be approx 2.5 kN per running meter.
For Walls: Density of bricks differs among 1500 to 2000 kg per cubic meter.
For a 6″ thick wall of 3 meter height and 1 meter length, the load to be calculated per running meter is identical to 0.150 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 900 kg that is same as 9 kN/meter. By applying this technique, it is possible to measure load per running meter for any brick type.
For autoclaved, aerated concrete blocks like Aerocon or Siporex, the weight per cubic meter remains among 550 to 700 kg per cubic meter.
If these blocks are used for construction, the wall loads per running meter will be as low as 4 kN/meter that can lead to a huge cutback in the construction cost.
For Slab: Suppose the slab contains a thickness of 125 mm. Now each square meter of slab would contain a self weight of 0.125 x 1 x 2400 = 300 kg that is identical to 3 kN. Now, suppose finishing load should be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load should be 2 kN per meter. Therefore, the slab load can be calculated as approx 6 to 7 kN per square meter.
Factor of Ssfety: Finally, as soon as the entire load on a column is measured, never forget to add in the factor of safety. For IS 456:2000, the factor of safety is 1.5.
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