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Download spreadsheet for RCC Retaining Wall (horizontally)

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Retaining walls are applied in building up the basement underneath ground level, wing walls of bridge as well as holding slopes in hilly terrain roads.

Retaining wall is developed with masonry and reinforced concrete. For masonry retaining wall, the wall thickness rises with height as masonry withstands the lateral pressure by its weight. So, it is also known as gravity retaining wall. The reinforced concrete retaining wall withstands the lateral pressure through structural action like bending and results in thinner section.

Cantilever Retaining Wall: Cantilever retaining wall is one type of retaining wall that is mostly recognized and extensively used.

Parts of a cantilever retaining wall and its actions:

1. Vertical stem: Vertical stem in cantilever retaining wall withstands the pressure of earth from backfill side and bends similar to a cantilever. The depth of cantilever slab is greater at the base of stem and it reduces bit by bit uprights because of decreasing soil pressure with reduction in depth.

2. Base slab: The base slab develops the foundation of the retaining wall. It is formed with a heel slab and the toe slab. The heel slab performs as a horizontal cantilever under the joint operation of the weight of the retaining earth from the upper and the soil pressure functioning from the soffit. The toe slab also performs as a cantilever under the operation of the soil pressure functioning upright. The strength of the wall is controlled with the weight of the earth fill and on the heel slab collectively with the self-weight of the structural components of the retaining wall. Cantilever type retaining walls can be used for up to 5m depth of backfill.

Download spreadsheet for RCC Retaining Wall (horizontally)

3. Counterfort Retaining Wall: If the height of earth to be retaining surpasses 5m, the bending moment established in the stem, heel and toe slabs are very huge which lead to greater depth of structural components and turn into expensive. Therefore, counterfort type retaining wall is recommended for greater heights.

Download spreadsheet for RCC Retaining Wall (horizontally)
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Counterfort retaining wall includes a stem, toe slab and heel slab as for cantilever retaining wall. But it also includes counterforts at uniform gap which separates the stem. The stem combined with counterfort performs like a tee-beam with fluctuating width.

The stem and heel slabs are attached with counterforts so as to bend the stem straight amid the counterforts owing to lateral earth pressure. So, the depth of stem and the heel slab is decreased significantly as a result of the decline of moment because of fixity of these slabs amid counterforts.