Steel Properties And Uses
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Steel is an alloy that is primarily produced with iron containing a carbon content of 0.2% to 2.1% by weight. There are other alloying materials like tungsten, chromium and manganese.
Characteristics of Steel:
1. Tensile Strength: Tensile strength means the amount of stress that a substance can endure prior to turn into structurally deformed. The tensile strength of steel is considerably high to enhance its resistance capacity against fracture or breakage. Due to this exclusive feature, it is very useful for infrastructure building.
2. Ductility: One of the strong mechanical properties of steel is its capability to adapt the shape on the basis of the force enforced on it, devoid of any fracture. This characteristic is defined as ductility that facilitates to make various shapes and structures varying from thin wires or large automotive parts and panels.
3. Malleability: Malleability is intimately associated with ductility and facilitates deformation of steel against compression. It permits this alloy to be compressed into sheets of changeable thicknesses, often developed with hammering or rolling.
4. Durability: The solidity of this alloy is greater that reveals its strength to defend against strain. It is durable and offers strong resistance capacity against external wear and tear. Therefore, it is treated as a very hard-wearing material.
5. Conductivity: Steel is a powerful conductor of heat and electricity. With these features, it becomes suitable for producing domestic cookware and electrical wiring.
6. Lustre: One of the physical properties of steel is its good-looking exterior look. It is silvery in colour with a shiny, lustrous exterior surface.
7. Rust Resistance: With the inclusion of specific components, some types of steel become resistant against rust. As for example, stainless steel comprises of nickel, molybdenum and chromium which make its strength superior to protect against rust.
Given below, various other crucial mechanical properties of structural steel:
a. Modulus of elasticity, E = 210,000 N/mm2
b. Shear modulus, G = E/[2(1 + ν)] N/mm2, often considered as 81,000 N/mm2
c. Poisson’s ratio, ν = 0.3
d. Coefficient of thermal expansion, α = 12 x 10-6/0C (in the ambient temperature range).
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