Types of bridge in construction
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There are different types of bridges. The types vary according to kinds of traffic, traffic position, material and fabrication, structural system.
Types of Bridge by Traffic: Highway bridge (trucks, cars), Pedestrian bridge (pedestrians, bicycles), Railway bridge (trains), Transit guideway (city trains, monorail), Other types (pipelines utilities industrial aqueduct airport Other types (pipelines, utilities, industrial, aqueduct, airport structure)
Types of Bridge by Traffic Position: Deck type - Structural components under the deck, Suitable for drivers (to see the view perfectly), Space is needed under the bridge.
Through type: Structural components over the deck, Obstructed view (not a issue for railway bridges), No structure below the bridge.
Fabrications Bridge: Precast (RC/PC), Cast-in-place (RC/PC), Pretensioned (PC), Posttensioned (PC), Prefabricated (steel), Rivet (steel), Bolted (steel/timber), Welded (steel).
Types of Bridge by Structure:
Arch bridges – Arch is used as a primary structural component (arch is permanently situated beneath the bridge). They are formed with one or more hinges based on the types of tolerable load and stress forces.
Beam bridges – Supported with diverse beams containing different shapes and sizes. They are inclined or V shaped.
Truss bridges – These types of bridges apply diagonal mesh of posts over the bridge. Usually, there are two most common designs like the king posts (two diagonal posts supported by single vertical post in the center) and queen posts (two diagonal posts, two vertical pots and horizontal post which attach two vertical posts at the top).
Cantilever bridges – These types of bridges support their load via diagonal bracing. They often apply truss formation both underneath and over the bridge.
Tied arch bridges – These types of bridges disperse weight of the bridge and traffic load to the top chord that is attached with the bottom cords in bridge foundation. They are frequently described as bowstring arches or bowstring bridges.
Suspension bridges – These types of bridges apply ropes or cables from the vertical suspender to sustain the weight of bridge deck and traffic.
Cable-stayed bridges – These types of bridges apply deck cables which are directly attached with one or more vertical columns. Cables are generally attached with columns in two ways – harp design (each cable is connected with the various points of the column, producing harp like design of “strings” and fan design (all cables are attached with one point at the top of the column).
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