Failure of Concrete Structures
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The main purpose of the columns is to transmit the load perpendicularly to the horizontal beam.
Each material in the building has to undergo both compression and tension stress and the design of the modern building is based on it.
In columns, there are two important materials one is concrete and second one is steel. Architects mainly workout the total stress because of the live and dead load of the whole building as well as design the internal elements (foundation, beam, and columns) of the building.
Therefore, when the functional stress goes beyond the permissible stress (calculated) then the collapsing of the structures may occur.
Types of Column Failure - Columns collapse in following two situation:
a. Compression Failure
b. Buckling Failure
Definition of compression failure:
Compression failure belongs to the material itself crushing or yielding nor the column.
Shorter and wider column usually collapse under compression failure.
When the axially loaded stress goes beyond the permissible stress, compression failure will happen. Consequently concrete begins to fail or bulge.
Compressive strength refers to how much load that the material can resist in normal situation prior to entirely collapse.
Generally various materials contain diverse compressive strength. (Steel > Wood)
Definition of Buckling Failure
Buckling failure happens in long column (slender column) where the columns are dislocated laterally or horizontally.
In reality, the buckling is defined as an abrupt collapsing of a structural member exposed to extreme compressive stress where the actual compressive stress at the point of failure remains below the ultimate compressive stresses so that the material gets the ability to resist it.
As for instance, when earthquake occurs, reinforced concrete members may undergo lateral deformation of the longitudinal reinforcing bars. This mode of failure is also known as failure owning to elastic instability.
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