# Failure of Concrete Structures

- Concrete Cost Estimator
- Concrete Continuous Footing
- Landscape Bidding and Estimating
- Construction Cost Estimating
- Concrete and steel cost estimation
- Construction Cost Estimate Breakdown
- Construction Estimating Worksheet
- Home Construction Cost Estimate
- Estimate Pricing Sheet
- Sheet for General Contractor

- Construction Cost Estimate
- Labor Materials Cost Estimator
- Masonry Estimating Sheet
- Sheet for Building Contractor
- Construction Schedule Bar chart
- General Cost Estimator Sheet
- General Construction Estimate
- Building and Road Estimating Sheet
- Detailed expense estimates
- Door and Window Takeoff Sheet
- General Construction Cost Estimating Sheet

The main purpose of the columns is to transmit the load perpendicularly to the horizontal beam.

Each material in the building has to undergo both compression and tension stress and the design of the modern building is based on it.

In columns, there are two important materials one is concrete and second one is steel. Architects mainly workout the total stress because of the live and dead load of the whole building as well as design the internal elements (foundation, beam, and columns) of the building.

Therefore, when the functional stress goes beyond the permissible stress (calculated) then the collapsing of the structures may occur.

Types of Column Failure - Columns collapse in following two situation:

a. Compression Failure

b. Buckling Failure

Definition of compression failure:

Compression failure belongs to the material itself crushing or yielding nor the column.

Shorter and wider column usually collapse under compression failure.

When the axially loaded stress goes beyond the permissible stress, compression failure will happen. Consequently concrete begins to fail or bulge.

### Also Read: A good construction document on design of reinforced concrete columns

Compressive strength refers to how much load that the material can resist in normal situation prior to entirely collapse.

Generally various materials contain diverse compressive strength. (Steel > Wood)

Definition of Buckling Failure

Buckling failure happens in long column (slender column) where the columns are dislocated laterally or horizontally.

In reality, the buckling is defined as an abrupt collapsing of a structural member exposed to extreme compressive stress where the actual compressive stress at the point of failure remains below the ultimate compressive stresses so that the material gets the ability to resist it.

As for instance, when earthquake occurs, reinforced concrete members may undergo lateral deformation of the longitudinal reinforcing bars. This mode of failure is also known as failure owning to elastic instability.

- Application of concrete calculator
- Roofing Calculator can streamline the roof estimating process
- House construction cost calculator
- Engineering column design excel spreadsheet
- Material Estimating Sheet with Excel
- Materials List and Cost Estimate Worksheet
- Concrete Slab Estimating Calculator Sheet
- Common types of foundations for buildings
- Online calculation of construction materials
- Estimating with Excel for the Small Contractor
- Concrete Beam Design Spreadsheet
- Virtual Construction Management app for construction
- Autodeskâ€™s Project Skyscraper
- Reed Constructionâ€™s Reed Insight
- Manage your construction project documentation
- Costimator, the popular cost estimating software
- On Center Software for construction professionals
- Free Construction Estimating Software
- Plumbing Calc Pro
- Cost Estimate Worksheet
- HVAC Piping Quantity Takeoff Worksheet
- Construction Estimating Software Sheet
- Estimate Cost Templates
- Construction Punch List
- Construction cost estimating template consisting estimating basic
- Gantt Chart Template for Excel
- Download Civil Engineering Spreadsheets with Verification
- The Building Advisor Estimating and Budgeting Worksheet
- Spreadsheet for design of concrete bridge
- Construction Estimating Software Free