Civil Engineering and Surveying
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Definition Of Surveying: Surveying means the system of examining and recording the properties of a land area span so that a plan can be designed or a map can be created easily for construction.
The surveying is categorized as follow :-
• Geodetic Surveying: Surveys are conducted on a widespread area by applying the control networks which stretch over long ranges.
• Cadastral Surveying: Surveys are accomplished for determining the ownership and boundaries of the land.
• Topographical Surveying: Surveys are performed to find out the structure of the land structure together with deviation in land heights.
• As Built Surveying: Surveys are conducted as soon as a construction project is finished to test out discrepancy from proposed design.
• Photogrammetry (Aerial Surveying): Surveys are conducted by snapping photographs from elevated ground stations.
• LiDAR (Aerial Surveying): Surveys are done with the help of remote sensors and light reflected by lasers to calculate distances.
Some recognized methods for conducting survey :
• Triangulation: Under this method, several triangles are inter-related and overlapped to calculate angles from a surveying station.
• Trilateration: It abides by the similar method as in Triangulation with supplementary use of Electronic Distance Meter (EDM).
• Traverse: Under this method, several lines of pre-measured lengths are inter-related to work out angles and distances.
• Leveling: Under this method, the discrepancy in heights in a terrain are calculated by applying the graduated rods.
• Radiation: Under this method radiating lines are outlined from a focal point to defined boundaries which are transformed to a small scale surveying sheet.
The surveying is conducted for the following purposes :
1. To develop the topographical map that demonstrates the hills, rivers, forests, valleys, etc.
2. To create the engineering map that demonstrates the engineering details like highways, railways, canals, dams, reservoirs, etc.
3. To make the contour map to find out the best probable route and amount of earthwork necessary.
4. To create the geographical and political map.
5. To build up archeological map that illustrates the places where ancient relics may have found.
6. To develop cadastrial map that demonstrates the boundries of properties like houses, buildings, fields, colonies, etc.
7. To form a military map that demonstrates various strategic points which are vital for the defence of a country.
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