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Types of Steel Used in Construction

Construction Software

Steel is one of the basic metals used in construction, it is light, and durable and is perfect for all construction-related work.

If we talk about the composition of steel it is a combination of iron and carbon. Steel is used in making different types of steel structures.

There are 4 types of steel used in construction and if you are oblivious about the types of steel used in construction then you have come to just the right place.

4 different types of steel are used in construction

There are 4 different types of steel used in civil engineering and they are.

  • Carbon steels
  • Alloy steels
  • Stainless steels
  • Tool steels

Let us look into them one by one :-

Carbon steels

Carbon steel is one the most widely used steel in construction, it accounts for around 90% of steel production. Carbon steel is a very strong and durable material and is perfect for multiple uses, especially in places where strength and durability are very much required.

Carbon steel contains 98% iron and 2% carbon and it is available in 3 types.

Types of carbon steels

  • Low carbon steel
  • Medium carbon steel
  • High carbon steel


Alloy steel

Alloy steel is made up of different types of elements like chromium, copper, nickel, vanadium, aluminum, and molybdenum.

The composition of these elements is mixed according to the characteristics required like ductility, machinability, strength, and corrosion resistance.

Alloy steel is very useful as its composition can be altered according to the desired results and hence it provides great assistance in construction.

Common alloys used in alloy steel

  • Aluminum
  • Copper
  • Manganese
  • Molybdenum
  • Silicon
  • Vanadium

Copper and aluminum alloy steel are very popular in the construction industry due to their lightweight and high heat tolerance properties.

Stainless steels

Stainless steel as the name suggests is anti-corrosive steel, it consists of 11-12% chromium. Stainless steel is commonly used in places where anti-corrosive properties of steel are required. It is generally used in architectural, food, and medical industries.

It is also vastly used in kitchen utensils and the glossy finish that it attains from higher chromium content makes it a good cosmetic addition as well.

Types of stainless steel

  • Martensitic
  • Ferritic
  • Austenitic
  • Duplex

Tool steel

The tool is a hard variety of steel which has an amazing property to withstand high heat. It is used in cutting and drilling equipment that is exposed to high heat and wear and tear. The composition of this steel contains tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt, and vanadium.

It is used in making tools for construction. Different types of tool steel are used to make different types of tools, the selection of tool steel is based on the purpose of the tool.

They are available in 6 grades

  • Air-hardening
  • Water-hardening
  • D-type
  • Hot-working
  • Shock-resistance
  • Oil hardening

Parting words

So these were 4 common types of steel used in India along with their types.

Steel being very flexible and ductile is used vastly in the construction industry and has some upper hand over other metals.

The use of steel has grown many times since its first use and it will continue to grow in the future.

The composition of steel can be altered according to the desired results which makes it a very flexible and useful metal in construction.

Hence, steel is one of the basic and most important elements of the construction industry.

types of steel used in civil engineering